Manipur Quick Facts
- Capital – Imphal
- Official Language – Meitei (Manipuri) and English
- Other Spoken Languages – Sino Tibetan languages
- Area – 22, 237 Sq Km
- Area Rank – 23rd
- Population – 25,70,390
- Population Rank – 22nd
- Population Density – 122/Sq Km
- Highest peak – Mount Iso (Tenipu)
- Sex Ratio – 987 females per 1000 male
- Sex Ratio Rank – 5th
- Literacy Rate – 79.85 %
- Literacy Rank – 9th
- No of Districts – 9
- Assembly Seats – 60 (Unicameral)
- Lok Sabha seats – 2
- Rajya Sabha seats – 1
- Created on – 21 Jan 1972
- First Chief Minister – Mairembam Koireng Singh
- First Governor – B K Nehru
- Present Chief Minister - Nongthombam Biren Singh
(Since 15 March, 2017)
Manipur is inhabited by three major ethnic groups - the Meiteis including the Meitei Pangals (Meitei Muslims) in the valley, the Nagas and the Kuki-Chin tribes in the hills. Besides this, other communities from the other states of India have also settled in the State.
Major communities of Manipur in alphabetical order are: Aimol, Anal, Chiru, Chothe, Gangte, Hmar, Koirao, Koireng, Kom, Lamgang, Mao, Maram, Maring, Meitei, Monsang, Moyon, Paite, Tangkhul, Tarao, Thadou, Vaiphei, Zeliangrong (Zemei, Liangmei, Rongmei) and Zou. In addition, Nepali, Bengali, Marwari and other Indian communities have also settled in the valley. All tribes have their own distinct languages but in conversing with others they speak Meiteilon.
Rice is the staple food for all ethnic groups of Manipur and meat, fish and seasonal vegetables are favorites. Meiteis prefer fish and elders usually do not take meat.
The state’s forests of teak, bamboo, oak, magnolia and pine trees sustain much of its economy. Agriculture provides 70% of Manipuri people with employment. Rice, maize, sugarcane, pulses, tropical and temperate fruits are grown here. Its main cottage industry is weaving. Almost every rural home has a traditional weaving loom.
Developmental efforts in Manipur, by and large, have primarily been directed towards social services sector. The geographical location of the State, lack of raw material and inadequacy in infrastructure like power, roads, water and market have kept industrial development at lower level. Concurrently, the traditional cottage and village industries and various small scale units in manufacturing and service sectors which do not require large investment and sophisticated machinery, have stood the test of time because of abundance of local demand, skill, manpower and participation.
- State Tree – Uningthou
- State Flower – Siroi Lily
- State Animal – Sangai
- State Bird – Nongyeen
Historical Quick Facts
- It was a Union territory from 1956 and became full fledged state from 1972.
- The earlier name of Manipur was Kangleipak or Meeteileipak.
- The origin of European Polo game lies in Manipur. Locals used to play a game riding on horseback which they called Pulu. The British spread this game as modern Polo to England during colonial period.
- The advent of Japanese forces to India was checked after they were defeated by British near the border of Imphal during World War II.
- The King of Manipur Princely state Bodchandra Singh signed the instrument of accession in 1949 and merged the princely state to union of India.
- Manipur was called as Jewel of India by Jawaharlal Nehru.
- The earliest references to 'Manipur' date back to the ancient Indian epic Mahabharata, in which several characters, such as Chitrāngadā, Ulupi, Babruvahana, and Iravan, are 'Manipuris'. The earliest references to Nagaland are found in the Indian epic Mahābhārata. Several characters from the region, such as Princess Ulupi and Prince Iravan, were referred to as Naga people in the epic.
Geographical Quick Facts
Physio-graphically, Manipur may be characterized in two distinct physical regions - an outlying area of rugged hills and narrow valleys and the inner area represents the features of flat plain topography with all associated land forms. These two areas are not only distinct in respect of physical features but are also conspicuous with regard to various floras and faunas.
The valley region would have been a monotonous, featureless plain but for a number of hills and mounds rising above the flat surface. The Loktak lake is an important geographic feature of the central plain area. The total area occupied by all the lakes is about 600 Sq.Km. The altitude ranges from 40m at Jiribam to as high as 2,994m at Iso Peak near Mao above MSL.